Outils pour utilisateurs

Outils du site


linux:administration

Services

Gestion des scripts qui sont dans '/etc/init.d':

Uniquement pour la session en cours:

    $ su -c "service nom_du_service [ start | stop | restart | status ]"

De facon permanente:

    $ su -c "chkconfig nom_du_service [ on | off | --list ]"

Graphique:

    $ su -c "drakxservices"

Niveau de sécurité 4

On a plus accès au menu,

root$ drakperm

Ajouter une règle personnalisé pour l'utilisateur: /usr/share/applnk/Settings/ en lecture

Nano

Éditeur de fichier en remplacement de vi.

Configuration

Éditez le fichier .nanorc ou /etc/nanorc

Exemple de configuration avec couleurs personnalisées

## Sample initialization file for GNU nano
## To make sure a value is not enabled, use "unset <option>"
 
## Backup files to filename~
set backup
 
## Allow nano to be suspended with ^Z
set suspend
 
## Enable ~/.nano_history for saving and reading search/replace strings.
set historylog
 
###### Here is an example for *
syntax "*" "$"
## highlight possible errors and parameters
color brightwhite "^ *(set|unset|syntax|color).*$"
## set, unset and syntax
#color cyan "^ *(set|unset) +(autoindent|backup|backupdir|brackets|const|cut|fill|historylog|morespace|mouse|multibuffer|noco$
#color green "^ *(set|unset|syntax)\>"
## colors
#color yellow "^ *color +(bright)?(white|black|red|blue|green|yellow|magenta|cyan)(,(white|black|red|blue|green|yellow|magent$
color magenta "^ *color\>" "\<(start|end)="
## strings
color white "\"(\\.|[^\"])*\""
## comments
color green "^ *#.*$"
 
###### Here is an example for c-file
syntax "c-file" ".*\.c$" ".*\.h$"
color red "\<[A-Z_]{2,}\>"
color green "\<float\>" "\<char\>" "\<int\>" "\<void\>"
color green "\<static\>" "\<const\>" "\<struct\>"
color magenta "\<if\>" "\<while\>" "\<do\>" "\<else\>" "\<case\>" "\<switch\>"
color brightcyan "#define" "#include" "#ifn*def" "#endif"
color brightcyan "#elif" "#else" "#if"
 
###### Here is an example for HTML
syntax "HTML" "[\.]*html$"
color blue start="<" end=">"
color red "&([^; ])*;"
 
###### Here is an example for TeX files  
syntax "TeX" "\.tex$"
color green "\\(.|([A-Za-z]*))"
color magenta "\{" "\}"
color blue "%.*"
 
###### Here is an example for Java source
syntax "Java source" "[\.]*java$"
color green "\<(boolean|byte|char|double|float|int|long|new|short|this|transient|void)\>"
color red "\<(break|case|catch|continue|default|do|else|finally|for|if|return|switch|throw|try|while)\>"
color cyan "\<(abstract|class|extends|final|implements|import|instanceof|interface|native|package|private|protected|public|static|strictfp|super|synchronized|throws|volatile)\>"
color red ""[^\"]*""
color yellow "\<(true|false|null)\>"
color blue "//.*"
color blue start="/\*" end="\*/"
color brightblue start="/\*\*" end="\*/"
#color brightgreen, brightgreen "[      ]+$"
 
###### Here is an example for perl
syntax "perl" "\.p[lm]$"
color red "\<(accept|alarm|atan2|bin(d|mode)|c(aller|h(dir|mod|op|own|root)|lose(dir)?|onnect|os|rypt)|d(bm(close|open)|efined|elete|ie|o|ump)|e(ach|of|val|x(ec|ists|it|p))|f(cntl|ileno|lock|ork)|get(c|login|peername|pgrp|ppid|priority|pwnam|(host|net|proto|serv)byname|pwuid|grgid|(host|net)byaddr|protobynumber|servbyport)|([gs]et|end)(pw|gr|host|net|proto|serv)ent|getsock(name|opt)|gmtime|goto|grep|hex|index|int|ioctl|join|keys|kill|last|length|link|listen|local(time)?|log|lstat|m|mkdir|msg(ctl|get|snd|rcv)|next|oct|open(dir)?|ord|pack|pipe|pop|printf?|push|q|qq|qx|rand|re(ad(dir|link)?|cv|do|name|quire|set|turn|verse|winddir)|rindex|rmdir|s|scalar|seek|seekdir|se(lect|mctl|mget|mop|nd|tpgrp|tpriority|tsockopt)|shift|shm(ctl|get|read|write)|shutdown|sin|sleep|socket(pair)?|sort|spli(ce|t)|sprintf|sqrt|srand|stat|study|substr|symlink|sys(call|read|tem|write)|tell(dir)?|time|tr|y|truncate|umask|un(def|link|pack|shift)|utime|values|vec|wait(pid)?|wantarray|warn|write)\>"
color magenta "\<(continue|else|elsif|do|for|foreach|if|unless|until|while|eq|ne|lt|gt|le|ge|cmp|x|my|sub|use|package|can|isa)\>"
color cyan start="[[email protected]%]" end="( |\\W|-)"
color yellow "".*"|qq\|.*\|"
color white "[sm]/.*/"
color white start="(^use| = new)" end=";"
color green "#.*"
color yellow start="<< 'STOP'" end="STOP"
 
###### Here is an example for pkgbuild
syntax "pkgbuild" "^.*PKGBUILD$"
color green start="^" end="$"
color cyan "^.*(pkgname|pkgver|pkgrel|pkgdesc|force|url|license|install|source|md5sums|groups|backup|depends|makedepends|conflicts|provides|replaces).*=.*$" 
color brightcyan "\<(pkgname|pkgver|pkgrel|pkgdesc|force|url|license|install|source|md5sums|groups|backup|depends|makedepends|conflicts|provides|replaces)\>"
color cyan "\.install"
color brightwhite "=" "'" "\(" "\)" "\"" "#.*$" "\," "\{" "\}"
color brightcyan "(\$|\$\{|\$\()(pkgname|pkgver|pkgrel|pkgdesc|force|url|license|install|source|md5sums|groups|backup|depends|makedepends|conflicts|provides|replaces|startdir)(|\}|\))"
color brightred "build\(\)"
color brightred "\<(configure|make)\>"
color red "\<(DESTDIR|PREFIX|prefix|sysconfdir|datadir|libdir|includedir|mandir)\>"
 
###### Here is an example for PHP 
#syntax "php" "\.php[2345s~]?$"
syntax "php" "[\.]*php$"  "[\.]*tpl$"
color brightblue "(.*)\("
color blue "\$[a-zA-Z_0-9$]*|[=!<>]"
color brightblue "[0-9]"
color brightred "([^A-Za-z0-9])|[^A-Za-z](null|array|int|string|float|bool|object|resource)[^A-Za-z0-9_]+[^A-Za-z]"
color green "(^|[^A-Za-z0-9])(<\?php|\?>|var|and|or|default|class|extends|true|false|global|function|new|switch|case|break|next|prev|elseif|if|else|foreach|for|as|do|while|exit|die|declare|require_once|require|include_once|include|return|echo|static|array|isset)([^A-Za-z0-9])"
color cyan "\$[]\[A-Za-z0-9_][^\\][^-\,()\"\'[:space:]]*"
color green "[.,{}();]"
color red "('.*')|(\".*\")"
color magenta "(#.*|//.*)$"
color magenta  start="/\*" end="\*/"
color brightblue "(<\?(php)?|\?>)"
color white start="\?>" end="<\?(php)?"
 
###### Here is an example for patch
syntax "patch" "\.(patch|diff)$"
color brightgreen "^\+.*"
color green "^\+\+\+.*"
color brightblue "^ .*"
color brightred "^-.*"
color red "^---.*"
color brightyellow "^@@.*"
color magenta "^diff.*"
 
###### Here is an example for *ml
syntax "ml" ".*\.([jrs]?html?|xml|sgml?)$"
color white "^.+$"
color green  start="<" end=">"
color cyan   "<[^> ]+"
color cyan   ">"
color yellow start="<!DOCTYPE" end="[/]?>"
color yellow start="<!--" end="-->"
color red    "&[^;]*;"
 
###### Here is an example for xorg.conf
syntax "xorg" "xorg\.conf$"
color brightwhite "(Section|EndSection|Sub[sS]ection|EndSub[sS]ection)"
# keywords
color yellow "[^A-Za-z0-9](Identifier|Screen|InputDevice|Option|RightOf|LeftOf|Driver|RgbPath|FontPath|ModulePath|Load|VendorName|ModelName|BoardName|BusID|Device|Monitor|DefaultDepth|View[pP]ort|Depth|Virtual|Modes|Mode|DefaultColorDepth|Modeline|\+vsync|\+hsync|HorizSync|VertRefresh)[^A-Za-z0-9]"
# numbers
color magenta "[0-9]"
# strings
color green ""(\\.|[^\"])*""
# comments
color white "#.*"
 
###### Here is an example for conf/rc/sh
syntax "conf/rc/sh" "conf$|rc$|sh$"
color white ".+"
color green "^#.*"
 
###### Here is an example for ebuilds/eclasses
syntax "ebuild" "\.e(build|class)$"
# All the standard portage functions
color brightgreen "^src_(unpack|compile|install)" "^pkg_(config|nofetch|setup|(pre|post)(inst|rm))"
# Highlight bash related syntax
color green "\<(case|do|done|elif|else|esac|exit|fi|for|function|if|in|local|read|return|select|shift|then|time|until|while)\>"
color green "(\{|\}|\(|\)|\;|\]|\[|`|\\|\$|<|>|!|=|&|\|)"
color green "-(e|d|f|r|g|u|w|x|L)\>"
color green "-(eq|ne|gt|lt|ge|le|s|n|z)\>"
# Highlight variables ... official portage ones in red, all others in bright red
color brightred "\$\{?[a-zA-Z_0-9]+\}?"
color red "\<(ARCH|HOMEPAGE|DESCRIPTION|IUSE|SRC_URI|LICENSE|SLOT|KEYWORDS|FILESDIR|WORKDIR|(P|R)?DEPEND|PROVIDE|DISTDIR|RESTRICT)\>"
color red "\<(S|D|T|PV|PF|P|PN|A)\>" "\<C(XX)?FLAGS\>"
# Highlight portage commands
color magenta "\<use(_(with|enable))?\> [a-z0-9X ]*" "inherit.*"
color brightblue "e(begin|end|conf|install|make|warn|infon?|error|patch)"
color brightblue "\<die\>" "\<use(_(with|enable))?\>" "\<inherit\>" "\<has\>" "\<(has|best)_version\>" "\<unpack\>"
color brightblue "\<(do|new)(ins|s?bin|doc|lib(|\.so|\.a)|man|info|exe)\>"
color brightblue "\<do(python|sed|dir|hard|sym|html|jar|mo)\>" "\<keepdir\>" 
color brightblue "prepall(|docs|info|man|strip)" "prep(info|lib|lib\.so|man|strip)"
color brightblue "\<(|doc|ins|exe)into\>" "\<f(owners|perms)\>" "\<(exe|ins)opts\>"
# Highlight common commands used in ebuilds
color blue "\<make\>" "\<(cat|cd|chmod|chown|cp|echo|env|export|grep|let|ln|mkdir|mv|rm|sed|set|tar|touch|unset)\>"
# Highlight comments (doesnt work that well)
color yellow "#.*$"
# Highlight strings (doesnt work that well)
color brightyellow ""(\\.|[^\"])*"" "'(\\.|[^'])*'"
 
###### Here is an example for shell scripts
syntax "shellscript" "[\.]*sh$"
color brightgreen "^[a-zA-Z_0-9]+\(\)"
color green "\<(case|do|done|elif|else|esac|exit|fi|for|function|if|in|local|read|return|select|shift|then|time|until|while)\>"
color green "(\{|\}|\(|\)|\;|\]|\[|`|\\|\$|<|>|!|=|&|\|)"
color green "-(e|d|f|r|g|u|w|x|L)\>"
color green "-(eq|ne|gt|lt|ge|le|s|n|z)\>"
color brightblue "\<make\>" "\<(cat|cd|chmod|chown|cp|echo|env|export|grep|install|let|ln|mkdir|mv|rm|sed|set|tar|touch|umask|unset)\>"
color brightred "\$\{?[a-zA-Z_0-9]+\}?"
color yellow "#.*$"
color brightyellow ""(\\.|[^\"])*"" "'(\\.|[^'])*'"
 
###### Here is an example for manpages
#syntax "manpage" "\.[1-9]x?$"
#color green "\.(S|T)H.*$"
#color brightgreen "\.(S|T)H" "\.TP"
#color brightred "\.(BR?|I[PR]?).*$"
#color brightblue "\.(BR?|I[PR]?|PP)"
#color brightwhite "\\f[BIPR]"
#color yellow "\.(br|DS|RS|RE|PD)"
 
###### Here is an example for *
#syntax "*" "$"
## highlight possible errors and parameters
#color brightwhite "^ *(set|unset|syntax|color).*$"
## set, unset and syntax
#color cyan "^ *(set|unset) +(autoindent|backup|backupdir|brackets|const|cut|fill|historylog|morespace|mouse|multibuffer|noconvert|nofollow|nohelp|nowrap|operatingdir|preserve|punct|quotestr|rebinddelete|regexp|smarthome|smooth|speller|suspend|tabsize|tempfile|view|whitespace)"
#color green "^ *(set|unset|syntax)\>"
## colors
#color yellow "^ *color +(bright)?(white|black|red|blue|green|yellow|magenta|cyan)(,(white|black|red|blue|green|yellow|magenta|cyan))?\>"
#color magenta "^ *color\>" "\<(start|end)="
## strings
#color white "\"(\\.|[^\"])*\""
## comments
#color green "^ *#.*$"
 
###### Here is an example for nanorc
syntax "nanorc" "[\.]*nanorc$"
color white "^ *(set|unset).*$"
color cyan "^ *(set|unset) (autoindent|backup|const|cut|fill|keypad|multibuffer|noconvert|nofollow|nohelp|nowrap|operatingdir|preserve|quotestr|regexp|smooth|speller|suspend|tabsize|tempfile|historylog|view)"
color brightwhite "^ *syntax [^ ]*"
color brightblue "^ *set\>" "^ *unset\>" "^ *syntax\>"
color white "^ *color\>.*"
color yellow "^ *color (bright)?(white|black|red|blue|green|yellow|magenta|cyan)\>"
color magenta "^ *color\>"
color green "^#.*$"
 
###### Here is an example for urls
syntax "urls"
color brightmagenta "^.*$"
color cyan "^(1[0-9][0-9]|20[256]|30[45]).*$"
color green "^20[03].*$"
color brightyellow "^(201|30[0-37]).*$"
color brightred "^(204|[45][0-9][0-9]|666).*$"
 
###### Here is an example for css
syntax "css" "\.css$"
color brightred "."
color magenta start="\{" end="\}"
color brightwhite start=":" end="[;^\{]"
color brightblue ":active|:focus|:hover|:link|:visited|:link|:after|:before|$"
color brightblue start="\/\*" end="\\*/"
color green ";|:|\{|\}"

JAVA

Instalation sur Debian Sarge

les outils nécéssaires

$aptitude install fakeroot java-package 

Télécharger Java

Création et instalation du paquet

#Toujours répondre yes
$fakeroot make-jpkg jdk-numéro_de_version-linux-i586.bin 
#Instalation du paquet créer
$dpkg -i sun-j2sdk-numéro_de_version_i586.deb
#Test
$java -version

Serveur de son

Pulse Audio

Commandes

#Liste des modules
$ pulseaudio --dump-modules
#Voir les processus qui tournent
$ ps aux | grep pulse
#Tuer les processus
$ pulseaudio -k

Serveur de version

GIT

Git est un gestionnaire de version décentralisé comme GNU Arch ou Monotone (ou Bitkeeper dans le monde propriétaire). Chaque répertoire de travail est un vrai dépôt git (avec toutes les fonctionnalités), il ne dépend pas du réseau et donc d'un serveur centrale.

GIT

Subversion

Définition

Subversion est un VCS, Version Control System, ou logiciel de gestion de version. C'est un logiciel qui permet à plusieurs développeurs de travailler sur un même projet, voir sur un même fichier simultanément. Il est responsable de la gestion des accès concurrents, ou plus exactement des modifications concurrentes sur un même fichier. De plus si les modifications ne sont pas conflictuelles, Subversion assure la fusion de celles-ci afin d'avoir au final une version du projet qui comprend toutes les modifications. source: hikage.developpez.com

Installation de Subversion et Apache 2

$ aptitude install subversion libapache2-svn subversion-tools

Gestion d'un dépôt

le répertoire de base des dépôts sera /var/lib/svn/repository

$ mkdir -p /var/lib/svn/repository/
$ svnadmin create /var/lib/svn/repository/projet_de_test

Check out du code

$ svn co file:///var/lib/svn/repository/projet_de_test

Configuration

Editer le fichier /etc/apache2/mods-available/dav_svn.conf

<Location /svn>
	DAV svn
	Require valid-user
	SVNParentPath /var/lib/svn/repository
	AuthType Basic
	AuthName "Subversion Repository"
	AuthUserFile /var/lib/svn/conf/htpasswd
	AuthzSVNAccessFile /var/lib/svn/conf/access
</Location>

Rajouter dans le fichier /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/default

<Directory /var/lib/svn/repository>
     Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
     AllowOverride None
 
     Order allow,deny
     allow from all
</Directory>

Créer les utilisateurs

$ mkdir -p /var/lib/svn/conf/
# -c est pour créer le fichier uniquement
$ htpasswd -c /var/lib/svn/conf/htpasswd nom_user1
# pour les autres utilisateurs
$ htpasswd /var/lib/svn/conf/htpasswd nom_user2
$ htpasswd /var/lib/svn/conf/htpasswd nom_user3

Configurer les accès utilisateurs, éditer le fichier /var/lib/svn/conf/access

[groups]
developpeur = nom_user1, nom_user2
 
[nomprojet1:/]
@developpeur = rw
* = r
 
[nomprojet2:/]
nom_user3 = rw
* = r
 
[projetprivehikage:/documentation/utilisateur]
auteurdoc = rw

Modification des droits du dépôt:

$ chown -R nom_user1:www-data /var/lib/svn/repository
$ chmod -R 775 /var/lib/svn/repository

Ensuite relance apache:

$ /etc/init.d/apache2 reload

tester avec l'URL http://ip_server/svn/nomprojet1

Commandes

$ svnadmin create repo
 
$ svn info repo
 
$ svn info path
 
$ svn import folder repo/VERSION
 
$ svn co repo/VERSION target-folder
 
$ svn export repo/VERSION target-folder

Réseaux

nombres de TCP

# netstat -nat | awk '{print $6}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n
1 Foreign
1 established)
7 LAST_ACK
12 LISTEN
13 SYN_RECV
14 CLOSING
17 FIN_WAIT2
22 CLOSE_WAIT
26 FIN_WAIT1
229 ESTABLISHED
928 TIME_WAIT

Linux Center

Le projet Linux Center est un index thématique de pages Web consacrées au système d'exploitation Linux, 
à ses applications et plus généralement au logiciel libre

http://www.linux-center.org/fr/

Monitoring

Munin

# Installation
$ aptitude install munin munin-node
# Configuration
$ nano /etc/munin/munin.conf

Mettre à jour Apache2, pour voir les résultats:

/etc/apache2/apache2.conf
 
ExtendedStatus On
<IfModule mod_status.c>
    <Location /server-status>
        SetHandler server-status
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from 127.0.0.1
    </Location>
</IfModule>
 
# ajouter le module
$ a2enmod info
 
#test de la bonne configuration
$ apache2 -t

Votre monitoring est accessible via http://localhost/munin/

si vous avez un site sur le même serveur, faite un lien :

[email protected]:/# cd /var/www/monsiteweb
[email protected]:/var/www/monsiteweb# ln -s ../munin/ munin

Options MUNIN

# les plugins disponibles pour votre version :
$ ls -l /usr/share/munin/plugins/
 
# ajouter un contrôle pour mysql_queries
$ ln -s /usr/share/munin/plugins/mysql_queries /etc/munin/plugins/mysql_queries
 
$ nano /myhome/.my.cnf
# ajouter les lignes suivante :
[mysqladmin] 
  user            = munin
  password        = *****

puis :

$ chmod 0600 /root/.my.cnf
 
$ which mysqladmin
 
$ nano /etc/munin/plugin-conf.d/munin-node
# Ajouter dans la section la ligne
[mysql*]
 env.mysqladmin /usr/bin/mysqladmin
 
 
# Ajout du monitoring pour apache
$ ln -s /usr/share/munin/plugins/apache_accesses /etc/munin/plugins/apache_accesses
$ ln -s /usr/share/munin/plugins/apache_processes /etc/munin/plugins/apache_processes
$ ln -s /usr/share/munin/plugins/apache_volume /etc/munin/plugins/apache_volume
 
# essayer le module suivant:
$ /usr/share/munin/plugins/apache_processes
# Si vous le message d'erreur suivant : Can't locate object method "new" via package "LWP::UserAgent" at /usr/share/munin/plugins/apache_processes line 134.
 
# executer la commande suivante:
$ aptitude  install libwww-perl
$ /etc/init.d/munin-node restart

Monitoring température et autres capteurs avec Munin

Gestion des Backup automatiques

Bind

Editer le fichier /etc/default/bind9 en ajoutant a la ligne OPTION -4 qui permet de n'ecouter QUE en IPV4

OPTIONS="-4 -u bind"
  ou en chroot:
OPTIONS="-4 -u bind -t /var/chroot/bind9"
linux/administration.txt · Dernière modification: 2012/02/10 23:24 (modification externe)